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SOARING BEAR Ph.D. Pharmacology
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Scientific advisor to the health professions & herbal industry
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Botany

Bear's links to plant pictures: herbpic - byregion

Botany Reference: BotanyOL - wiki - BotanyOLlibrary - wildclass - UPennOL - 1788 Walter's Flora Caroliniana - Smithsonian/NMNH - botanicus -
 flower Inflorescence arrangement: ontario - wiki - biodiversity - palomar -
Botany Dictionary Glossary: usgs - gardenweb - glossary(au) - glossary(au) - oxford - plant systematics & dict - monocot/dicot distinction - plantontologies - plantontology - botanycom -
 Dict English Spanish: efloraTranslation - usda152 - usda152 - usda152html -
Education: learnplantsnow -
Identification Keys: CompareDallwitz11 - CompareDallwitz10 - CompareDallwitz07 - DicotsPlantSysNixon - deltaIntkeyDownload - Encyclopedia of Life (EOL)sobearj - Lucid(bear1j) - LucidNeotropikey - lucid3free - kewNeotrop - kewNeotrop - LucidWoody - Discoverlife - TropicalDiscover - FlowersDiscover - TreesDiscover - enature - IdentifyLife - KeytoAllLife(bearj;f) - PlantImageAnalysis - gardenorg - KewZambesiaca - keytoNature - keytoNatureSearch - ElectronicFieldGuide - FieldmusGuides - FieldPicGuides - bmomFlColor - pughFlColorNC - mekaSliksJepson - jepson - mekaJepson - treeshapes - AboutTreekey - healthy - efloras - actKeyChinaHarvard - Pollyclave(UToronto) - FloraOnlineBuf - BBG - xper - XID - XIDnorthwest - silverkey - GobotanyNewEngland - keylargo - AustraliaWeeds - pondplants - fieldLinks - Walinks - shrubsDuncanUGa -
 phone ID apps: review - list - leafsnapPhoneAp - calflora - XIDandroid - essentials - arbor - statesman - mobilehandheld - palm - palmkey -
 web ID photo help: davesgarden - natureplusUK - allthings - leafveinsdb -

 Keys of Regions: FloraNAmGenuskeys - FloraMesoAmer(mobot) - FloraMesoamerFamilies - MexicoConabio - CalifJepsonKeil - SanDiegoBowles - SoCalif - StaMonicaMt - StaMonicaFl - ArizonaDelange - ArizonaKinsey - WesternWetland - Desert - ColoAz - SEINsw - Colorado - TexasTrees - MissouriTenaglia - missouriplants - AppalachiaWeakley - Midwest wetlands300 - auburnAlabama - Georgia - Pacific NW flowers (Slichter) - Washburke - Cascades(Slichter) - MtNatureCanada - Wisctrees - WiscTrees - UWfamily(UWi) & pic - WiscGymnosperms - Minn - StLouisSeasons - northeastHaines - wetlandplantsKey - PineBarens(Baker) - usda - AsiaTrees - BorneoTrees - CanberraBlackMt - florabaseAustralia - NSWales - TasmaniaMonocot - Africa - Britain - GobotanyNewEngland - LouisianaStU - LouisianaGrass - SoutheastGwaltney - GeorgiaMarlow -
 Keys TO Families: dicotsNixon - Colby Colby211 Hamburg mirror - jepson - botSocBritish - HowToBowlesXID - pathkeyDelta - plantsystematicsDivLife - clc - carter - Australia - houseplants - Thonner - GMUkelloff - UMa - wildclass -
 Keys IN/OF Family: jepson - eflora - Convolvulaceae - ConvolvulaceaeCostaRica - MonteVerdeCR - IpomoeaCR - Clusiaceae (hypericum, calophyllum, garcinia) - Cycads - Gymnosperms - Capsicum - Orchids (UWi) - kewGrassIntkey - Saxifragaceae - Symplocaceae - SolanaceaeJepson - SolanumDelta - SolanaceaeNHM - SolanaceaeLuirig - LauraceaeCostaRica -  Zingiberales(NMNH) - Iridaceae - WuChina - Heliantheae - Alnus - CornellGymnosperms - WiscGymnosperms - TLANlandscape - GrassVir - Carex - Carex - sedges - Clematis -
 Family Asteraceae (Compositae): features - tribes - vkkey - vk - michKey - panero - jepsonCal - jepsonCal - jepsonCal - FloraNAeflora - FloraNAeflora - Elpel - kewBolivia - eflora - efloraVernonia - landcareNZ - landcarekeyNZ - ShinnersWiscpdf - tamu - composorg - UNMworkgroup - lifedesk(sbe) - AsterOntario - picsItaly - pics -
 Family Apiaceae (Umbeliferae): WuChina - jepson -
 Family Fabaceae: planetnet - jepson - intkeyUSDA - harvardchina - zipzoo - coeCal - NorAz - tamuPic -
 Family Asclepiadaceae: delta -
 Family Apocynaceae: carr -
 Family Acanthaceae: durkee -
 Family Flacoutiaceae: alford -
 Family Ericaceae: usda -

Concordance table of Family Names (APG, Cronquist, etc) by Reveal
Suprageneric Names Database Natl Ag Lib - finder - 11k genus changes (IPNI, Clothier) -
Plant Families: UConn - Reveal plant systemics - botany 307 U Toronto - kew genera within families - 3letter family abrev - Liliaceae - cycads - Mistletoe - Cacti -
FamilyLists: kew - wiki - delta - Reveal -
Trees Keys: TreesDiscover - Yucatan trees - CaribTreesKirk - CostaRica - AsiaTrees - SoCarolina - TennRadnorBaskauf - VaTrees - VaTreeLeafTwigKey - Leaf & twig (VirT) - leaf&twig - MinnTrees - trees(UDel) - Iowatrees - Iowatrees - Wisctrees - WisctreesOregon Conifers - trees (Abrahmson, Bucknell) - trees (arborday) - Georgia - FloraNorAmFamilies - FloraNorAmFamilies - Kell - Michigan - Michigan - about - selectree - NixAbout - TexasTrees -
Fruit: FruitKey - CaSUWolfFruit -
Search on color, season, zone: sierrahome - Hearst - Reed -

Databases: IOPIdblinks - weeds of world (oxford) - WOWswiss flora - NPflora download - IOPIdatabases - Taxonomic Database Working Group - Linnaeus taxon db (like delta?) - BritishFerns - WiscFernKey - AgroForesTree 700 Asian trees id & uses - pfafSearch(unc) - PFAF -
Delta: intro - deltaBeginColeman2010 - newslet1988-95 - intkey - biocollections - intkeySeltmann - old uno - muenchen - news - naturbase - taxasoft editor (gouda) - Pollyclave (UToronto) - Navikey - pandora - xdelta - deltaALA - FreeDELTA - FreeDELTA - FreeDELTA - FreeDELTA - Freedelta - Freedelta - OpenDeltaXML - OpenDelta - links - datasets - datasets - DeltaAccess - DeltaAccess - Diversity Workbench - delia extension - DIANA interactive shell - taxasoftEditor - PyDelta - PyDelta - BugsIntkey -
Meka: Meka download - Meka - MEKA intro - MEKA faq - JepsonMeka - Jepsonkeys - SLIKS - bowles -
Other: florin - Lucid(bear1j) - LucidWeeds - LucidWeeds - LucidCentaurea - BrahmsHerbariumdb - Alice - Xper - Xper - Xper - xper - EDIT - UMassElectronicFieldGuide - identifyKeysCentral - Scratchpads - CyberTaxonomyEd - iBiosphereWiki -
Principles of Interactive Keys: delta - kew - tdwg -


APG vs. Cronquist taxonomy hierarchy: When Linnaeus began the binomial naming of species during the 1700's, plant systematics was based on the appearance of reproductive parts (flowers) and has gradually been refined to the current Chronquist hierarchy. Genetic knowledge of the 20th century led to the APG system based on gene sequences which is highly useful for evolution, however is limited to only the minority of plants that have been sequenced, hence a majority of plants are left in the category "not assigned", so loses relations coming down through the centuries in the Chronquist hierarchy.
Cronquist Classic system is based on appearance of reproductive parts: USDA Plants - CronquistPhylogenyTouchgraph - CronquistTreeTamu - CronquistTreeLohmueller - APGvsCronquistCarrUHi - APGvsCronquistDelta -
APG sequence system is based on gene sequence (RNA pol) but incomplete: NCBI - Tree of Life (APG) - MoBot - Uppsala - TAMU - APGtree - APGvsCronquistCarrUHi - review: An update of the APG classification Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 399-436 2003 - Bremer in "Plant Systematics for the 21st Century" ed B Nordenstam, G El-Ghazaly & M Kassas, 1998 -
18S rRNA gene sequences of plants: UCBerkeley -

Names cross index: BONAP(berkeley) - USDAplants - Integ Taxon Info Syst - IPNI search - IPNItips - LatinChangesClothier - TNRSmobot - TNRSiPlantMobot - TNRSresolution - Fletcher - Moore - PlantList - Plant Name Db - CommonNames(b&t) - CommonCheshire - MeaningsDave - frog - nearcticalinks - NCU(iapt)ING(Smithsonian) - ING(Smithsonian) - Bryophytes(mobot) - Porcher - WatsonDallwitz? - HindiSanskritBotan - SpanishNames(ciagri) - TicoSpanishnames - PortugeseNames in Current Use search - AsiaSyn - Asia&ArabicNames - JapanesePlantNames - Serbian.Latin - rememberingnames -
Latin Name Meanings: latinNameMeaning - winternet - calflora - clothier -
Authorities: UMd/NAL - Kew - Harvard -
Common Names: Porcher - ARSgrin - ARSgrin - ARSgrin -

Taxonomic Description: jstor(sby 1j) - taxonomicDBgrp(IntlUnionBioSci) - SI - SI - valikko 400 - W3TROPICOS - tropicos search - taxonomyDying - ars/GermplasmRIN - ars-GRIN - zipcodezoo - Gray name search Gray - Reveal plant systemics - DigitalFlowers - UIUC - TreeWeb - FLORA2K - Florachecklist - DELTAfam - DELTAfam - DELTAfam - DELTA fam - DELTA Marchantopsida - pandora - meem - IOPI - sp2000 - Pines of ENorAm(ncsu)AtlasLivingAustralia - hiroshima - Fire Effects - lichens Oslo - Fam Concordance - Asteraceae (unex)  - Molina (unex) - jds35 - ChinaFlora (byfamily) - speciesquestion - gymnospermsdb (Earle/Bonn) - gymnosperms(Earle) - gymnosperms(Earle) - FungiTaxonomy - Cycads - Cycads - Cycads - Cycads - DigitalTaxonomylinks - FloraAustraliaOnline - TDWG - TDWGproc - TDWG07 - morphbank - taxonXML - GBIF - morphster - FloraCostaRica - FieldianaLatinAmer - FloraGuatemala - FloraGuate - ctfsPanama - crescent - flowerparts - jstorPlants - Theophrastus botany 300BC -


Botany Classification: Upsalla - angiosperm phylogeny clade - plant systematics & pict - SystematicsSyllabus (Evans) - plant kingdom classification (Zeuter) - Treebase (UCBerk) - zookeys(sbyj) - phytokeys -

Taxonomy Parts Nomenclature general: morphology dictionary (probe) - DownieUIsystematics - Farabee - taxonomic key by pictures (omnicyber) - dictionary (gw) - ID software (bleeker) - Bleeker Botanical Sorting - IDsoftware(bleeker) - guiaverde software - leaf margins(ostracon) - herbaria, taxon, ecol - fi software links - Taxon201 Manhart - taxon301Wilson - taxon301Wilson - Flora NAm - Botan El News archive - IntlCodeBotNomenclature - Intl Code Nomenclature - INGcontents - Arabidopsis(entrez) - treebase - species2000 - systematics - digitax - digitax - OUlinks - World Taxonomist Db search - taxon links (Johnson, Ark Tech U) - Botany 201 (EnglerTAMU) - 201tamu -PlantAnatomyMalpighi1675 - 17-19th century bio manuscripts Stueber - WolfCSUStanislaus - UIUC - EFGkey - freedic -
Flower Parts: fairchild - palomar - ibiblio - flowerPartCodes - flowerterms - calverley - floralformulas - stamens -
Plant Photo Pic tips: PlantPicBaskauf -

Chemotaxonomy: pakistan -

Course Materials: Reveal - botany115 & plant families (Wayne) - Plunkett VCU - UWisc - UMn herbarium - smithsonian - smithsonian search - U Fla herbarium - Mo. Botan Gard - UMo list - UCt - UCt tree list - UA herbarium - Helsinki links - Dickinson - IOPIdb - Wolf (csu Stanislaus) - UToronto - UToronto - Botany 201 (Engler, TAMU) -

Plant Physiology: Iowa - botany 251 U Toronto - OttawaDrawings - seedID - seedImage$ - cartage - PlantStructureOntologysearch - fruittypes - plastids(Joyard, Plant Physiol 118:715 1998) -
Plant Anatomy: LeafShape(cnps) - Botha - enchanted - botonline - worthley - Fruit&nuts - Fruit&nuts - PlantCellOrganelles - Plasmodesmata -
Pollen: Roslin150 - nrm - Upsala -
Flowers: FloralReflectancedb -
LifeCycle of plants: Biodidac(UOttawa) -
Photosynthesis: botany 322 U Toronto - govindjee -

Phyllotaxis spiral fibonacci patterns in plants: smith -

Phenology (flowering period): Dawes (ohio) - WashDC 100 spring plants(NMNH) - National Arboretum all year -
Plant math to anticipate night length: scialdone - scialdone -

Plant Pathology: APS common names of plant disease - ForestPathology - PLEXdb -
hostFungidb(WSU) -

parasiticPlants: parasiticPlants - omnisterra - Nickrent -

Herbaria/Arboretum catalogs: USNationalLeafdb - Linnaeus(nrm) - TAMU - ConnCol - UConn - UConn family - HarvardGray - Harvard specimen search - mobot - CSUStanislaus - NYBG - Canberra - NCSU - NCSUsearch - UFla - BIMS(CostaRica)  - Jamaica-Sloane - CMU-HuntBotanicalArt - NYBGVirtualHerbariumDB - NYBGVirtualHerbariumSpecimens - BotanicusHistorical - NewUnclassifiedSpecies - fairchild - LouisianaSU - LSUgrass -

Plant GeneDB: Ag Geneome - Plant Gene db - ERGOplant - planex - planexdoc -

Legumeweb (ILDIS)

Botany Links: VirtualLib(Russell, UOkla) - UFla - FloraNAmsearch - FloraUS - FloraMesoAmer - FloraofOhio - FloraofUS - FloraofPuertoRico - Hamburg - nearctica - links - yahoo - yahoo plants - mbleeker - Torkelson - TAMU Botany Links - CtrPlantConservationNatives(mobot) - npdc (usda) - usda-nrcs - UNC - VaTech - Scott fp 3000 - IDB(Lampinen)IDB(Liu) - Liu Botany - helsinki - UNM - OSU - VirTech trees - Ontario trees - Colby - CSU biosci - CSU botany - Liu links? - Botlink - Au - Berlin - Botan Stanford - fi - Cuphea, Lythrum? - BotAuthors search - Gresham - ETI(unesco) - Inet Dir Bot Software - UKansas - AtlasFloraeEur - BotanySoc - 17-19th century bio manuscripts Stueber - NBII - nl - AustraliaANBG - ElSalvadorTrees - LondonNatlHistoryMus - FallFoliage - CarnivorousPlants - BrazilPlants -

NativePlant Soc of US: md -

Evolution: PaleoceneFossilsColombia -
DNA barcoding: Panama -

Checklists: So.Appalachians - WetlandsPlants(fws) - Palms(Hole) - Chenopodia(Flora) - Grass - Grass(si) - Grass(mobot) - aridlands - CostaRicaHaber - Belize(nybg) - Ecuador(mobot) - Mesoamerica(mobot) - Nicaragua(mobot) - Mexfloralists -

Rare/Endangered Plants: Natl Collection - ESIS - US F&WS - FWS SW - NMrareUS - US - by state - Idaho - India -

Forestry: Jurassic Pine - Mo silva - fws - Tex forestry - Oxford Forestry - metla forestry -

Parks: NPS - Botanical Gardens - USFSwildflowers -

Botanizing Trails Online: UWisc BG - UWash - UAz campus - OreMcCree - UCBerkeley - UCBerkeley - Huntington - Worthley - Australia's Virtual Herbarium -

Habitat/Climate zone maps see environment page -

Plant Distribution Maps: natureserve - 500treesUSGS -
Vegetation Diversity: WorldPlantDiversity - DiversityProductivity -
Collection Tracking db: TMCT -

Mushrooms: nybg -

Poisonivy

ThoreauBotany

floridataStates -

birds: ornithology -

Herbal Art: herbalart -

Botanical Plant Garden Label Marker: bgci - ahs - paweverlast - zinc - gardenmarkers - sheen - mylabel - crescent -

Economic botany in herbmed page

Landscape Planning: AlbemarleVa - findaplant -

Organizations: BotanicalSoc - AmSocPlantTaxonomists -


Commercial Product Suppliers: Moore's list - essential oils - Gritman oils - twinlab - natures herbs (twinlab) - Whole Foods Mag - ashland pharm-botan - mediherb Aust (bear) - cosmetics dir - pict, seeds & cultivation - sequential - timtec9000extracts -


1995-2006 Soaring Bear; your comments & corrections are welcome