Make your own free website on Tripod.com
home
SOARING BEAR Ph.D. Pharmacology
index
Scientific advisor to the health professions & herbal industry
index

Phytochemical groupings:
  Some are organized by biosynthetic pathway (terpenes) and some are by apparent structure without regard to pathway (pyrrolizidines). A couple are named after plant nomenclature where they are found (berberines).

pic names characteristic sim MW
 

Lipid hydrocarbons

  alkynes, terpenes -
 

 alkynes

=-=- lipids  
 

Carbohydrates

     
N-

Amines

     
  Phenylethylamines ArCCN   153
  Cyclopeptides   tyrosine bridged by 4 aa (smaller than cyclic peptides) 550
  

Spermine/-idine cyclic alkaloids (orantine)

     
         
 

Alkaloids

     
Pyridines, cyt thy NAr    
Piperidines NC5 sparteine  
  Purines      
  Pteridines      
Pyrrolidines NC4    
Pyrrolizidine Necine      
Quinuclidines azabicyclo      
Tropanes (atropine diterp)   morphinan  
pavine      
Quinolines     129
Isoquinolines     129
Benzylisoquinolines   aporphines 223
   Bis-benzylisoquinolines      
Tetrahydroisoquinolines   quinoliz, amary, piperidines  
Quinolizines & Sparteine   piperidines 131
Acridines & Pyridoacridines ArNOAr xanthones  
         
Aporphines ArIsoQAr benzisoquin  
Benzophenanthridines ArQuinAr    
Berberine ArQuinolizAr    
Amaryllidaceae Alk

C16 Tyr benzaldehyde
pyrrolophenanthridone

Kaurane 258
Morphinans opioids, N in bridge tropanes  
Ergolines      
Indole      
Carbolines      
  indolizino-carbazole      
Secologanin Tryptamine      
         
 

Terpenes iupac

     
   Monoterp C10   140
  Iridoid C10 pyran    
   Sesquiterpenes C15    
  Sesquiterp, Eudesmane (selinane) & eremophil & cadinane, drimane 66    
  Sesquiterp, Germacrane 10    
  Sesquiterp, Guaiane 75   128
  Sesquiterp, Bisabol 1hex8   210
   Sesquiterp, alliacane, primnatriene, oplopane, mutisianthol, pinguisane, thapsane 65    
   Diterpenes - other possible-taxane, aconitan, ryanodine C20    
  Diterp, Cembrane 1ring of 14    
  Diterp, Clerodane 2 Callyl    
    Diterp, Labdane 2 CC rabbit ears    
  Diterp, Abietane, pimarane, cassane 3 phenanthrene kaurane bridge  
  Diterp, Kaurane 4 Quassins  
  Diterp, Phorbols, Tigliane, taxane 675    

Triterpenes C4abC14

C30: cucurbitacin, dammarane,ginsenoside, lanoster,    
Pentacyclic Triterpenes C30: amyrin, betulin, friedelan, glycyrrhizic, hederin, lupane, oleanane, soyasaponin    
   Limonins 17furan   470
  Quassins C20, nortriterp kaurane diterpene 388

 Steroids lack C4abC14

     
Cardenolides 17lactone    
  Steroid Alkaloids esp Solanum    
  Tetraterpenes C40    
   Ionol norisopren C13   194
         
   Benzoquinones ArOO    
   Naphthoquinones ArArOO    
 Anthraquinones ArArOOAr    
 Xanthones      
Anthracenes ArArAr    
  phenanthrenes not abietanes   abietane diterpene  
         
  pyrans   chromenes  
Chromones Benzopyrone; C9 chalcones 146
Coumarins C9 furano=psoralen 146
Psoralens C11   186
  diArylHeptanoids & curcumin ArCCCCCCCAr    
         
  phloroglucinols      
Cinnamates, phenylpropanoid, coumaroyl (from Phe) ArCCC monoterp, lignan 148
  phenylethanoid (from Tyr) ArCC acteoside,  

  Lignans

Cinn2- furan, cycloct

   
Benzofurans, phthalides      
Acetophenones ArCOC phenols  

Stilbenes, bisbenzyl

ArCCAr chalcone  

Chalcones

ArCCCAr; C15 stilbene, chromone 208
         
 

Flavonoids

C15    
Flavones 2ene 4=O    
Flavanones 4O   224
Flavonols 2ene 4O 3OH
some include any 3-OH-flavone
  238
  DihydroFlavonols 4O 3OH    
Isoflavones     222
Pterocarpans flavFuran    
Rotenone flavPyran 4=O coumestan  
  coumestan flavPyran 4Oring rotenone  
Flavans

4HH 3HH
 catechin adds 3OH

anthocyanin w/o +  

Anthocyanins

O+ 4HH 3OH Proanthocyanidins is oligomer; no charge is flavans 207

Condensed Tannins

Proanthocyanidins    

Hydrolyz Gallo Tannin

C7O5   170
         
  Isocyanates
Glucosinolates
N=CO
R=NOSO3
   
  Nitriles,Cyanogenic N=C    
         
  acids COOH    
         
maybe        
  thio? isothiocyan, thiazol    
  phenolics ArOH Acetophenones  
  oxylipin & prostagland? C18-20 eicos    
  dictyopterenes C11 algae    
  quinoxaline?      
  benzypyrans   chromenes  
  oxygen heterocyc, furan, pyran   chromenes, flavon  
  polyketides alternating O